Home Engineering An Electrical Substation, types and it’s main Equipment

An Electrical Substation, types and it’s main Equipment


Electrical Substation

An Electrical Substation is an essential module of an Electrical Generation-Transmission-Distribution arrangement, which converts voltage from high to low or vice-versa by using a step-down or step-up transformer depending upon the needs. Generally, before transmission, a substation increases the voltage by decreasing current using a step-up transformer and before distribution, a substation decreases the voltage by increasing the current using a step-down transformer. Between consumer and generating stations, there may be several substations to transform the voltage in several steps. An electrical utility or a large industrial or commercial customer can own a Substation and they can operate it by their electrical engineers & technicians. However, engineers generally supervise and operate substations from remote control stations using systems like SCADA.

Types of substation:

There are basically two types of substations, Transmission substations and distribution substations. In transmission substations, we step-up the voltage for transmission benefits. On the other hand, in distribution substations, we step-down the voltage for distribution reasons.

Transmission Substations:

This type of substation is used before transmission. Transmission substations can either small or large, in a verity of range. Simple “switching station” may be an arrangement of a bus and some circuit breakers. The complex transmission substations can cover a huge area with several hectares of land with many circuit breakers, multiple voltage levels and a large number of protective devices and control units having relays, SCADA, CTs and PTs.

Distribution Substations:

This type of substation is used before distributing electricity to consumers. Distribution voltages are typically medium voltage, generally ranging between 2.4 kV to 33 kV, which completely depends upon the size of the local area. Additionally, distribution substations play a vital role to isolate faults in either distribution or the transmission systems.

Main Equipment of an Electrical Substation:

Electrical Substations mainly have protective elements, switching elements, and Transformers. The main parts and detail list of elements are:

  1. Overhead lines
  2. Primary power lines – A
  3. Secondary power lines – B
    4. Power Transformer
  4. Disconnector switch
  5. Circuit breaker [ to interrupt any overload current flow or short circuits]
    7. CT (current transformer)
    8. Lightning arrester as LPS
    10. Control Unit
    11. Security fenced enclosure
    12. Grounding wire/ Earthing System

However, some other elements like voltage regulators, capacitor bank and reactors can be also be used in a substation.


Selection of are and place for a Substation

The following factor is taken under consideration while making place selection for a substation.

Sort of substation – The category of the substation is significant for its location. as an example , a transformer could also be some extent where power from various sources is pooled and intensify for long-distance transmission should be located as cool as possible to attenuate the losses. Similarly, the on-project transformer should be carefully located nearer to the load center to scale back transmission losses, to minimize the price of the distribution system and the better reliability of supply.

Availability of suitable and sufficient land – The particular land, which is mainly selected for a substation, expected to be a level and open from all sides. It shouldn’t be waterlogged particularly within the season. the situation selected for substation should be such an approach of transmission lines and their begin are often easily possible with none obstruction.The places nearer to airdrome, shooting practice ground, etc. should be avoided.

Station Communication facility – an appropriate communication facility is to be ensured at a proposed station, both during and after the station construction. it might be better, therefore, to select the situation alongside the prevailing road to facilitate neater and cheaper transportation.

Atmospheric Pollution – The atmosphere round the ground factories produces metal corroding gas, air fumes, conductive dust, etc. and thus the world near the ocean coast could even be more humid and is harmful to the proper running of the power system. Thus, the substation shouldn’t be located near the factories or the beach .

Availability of Essential Facilities to the Staff – the situation should be such where staff are often provided essential facilities like school, hospital, beverage, housing, etc.

Drainage Facility – the situation selected for the proposed substations should have proper drainage arrangement or the likelihood of making effective drainage, avoid pollution of air and growth of micro-organism and health.

A Package Substation marketing research Research Report

According to a worldwide Package Substation marketing research research report, Global Package Substation Market valued approximately USD 8.76 million in 2016 is forecasted to grow with a healthy rate of growth of quite 11.27% over the forecast period 2018-2025. the most factors imagined to augment the markets are reduced losses within the power distribution system, cost-effectiveness, and rise in power demand & reducing space availability.

Moreover, increased electricity demands thanks to increased usage of data centers and other niche technologies is augmenting the market growth. The urban infrastructure development in major key regions is additionally becoming a possible expansion area for the market. A Package Substation is completely self-contained solution for power distribution that has distribution transformer, outdoor duty enclosure, low voltage panel, medium voltage switchgear, and accessories like control & protection equipment,  all providing an efficient, power factor improvement equipment, and price effective total installation.

The Regional analysis

The regional analysis of worldwide Package Substation Market is taken under consideration for the key regions like Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and remainder of the earth . Asia Pacific is that the leading region across the earth in terms of market share. this may be attributed to the diversifying developments, distribution network, and upgrades within the foremost of Southeast Asia region. Furthermore, this growth is additionally accredited to escalating industrialization and urbanization within the countries like China, India, and other South Asian countries, Asia Pacific region is additionally expected to exhibit higher rate of growth / CAGR over the forecast period 2018-2025.The objective of the study is to define market sizes of varied segments & countries in recent years. The report is supposed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved within the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects like driving factors & challenges which may define the long run growth of the market.

Now you recognize what’s the electrical substation definition, types, main equipment, diagram and other necessary information associated with it.

Learn more about Power Engineering

Read more Engineering posts.